What are some of the main effects of poverty in developing countries? 

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The fact that the concept of "developing countries" exists is a reason poverty exists throughout the globe. Civilization, states, and capitalism have violently transformed entire regions of the globe into dumping grounds and sites of extraction for wealthy nations. Poverty exists because civilization exists, wherein there are ruling classes, laws, and police to enforce the laws of the rich and powerful. The rich and powerful control and own the majority of the resources in the world. Rather than having abundance for all, due to the realities of colonialism and globalized capitalism, there is surplus and luxury for a few and scarcity and struggle for over half of the world.

Africa was thriving in many different ways in many different areas prior to the onslaught of genocidal colonization. The poverty that exists today in regions of Africa is largely due to the devastations of colonization and globalized capitalism. This same reality is true across nations and regions of the Global South that have been impoverished due to white supremacy, colonialism, neoliberalism, and globalization. The effects of this colonialist, capitalist-rooted poverty are many, ranging from human rights abuses to forced removal from homelands to loss of sovereignty to having to endure an onslaught of patronizing non-governmental associations and evangelists.

Last Updated by eNotes Editorial on January 29, 2020
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According to the most recent statistics compiled by the World Bank, about 10 percent of the world's population lives in extreme poverty, which means that they survive on less than 1.90 USD per day. Over half of these extremely poor people live in the developing nations of Sub-Saharan Africa. There are several serious effects of poverty in developing countries.

One of the major problems stemming from poverty is an absence of adequate health care. The lack of clean water and proper sanitation leads to rampant infectious diseases, which cause the deaths of millions in developing countries. Among the most serious of these are malaria, tuberculosis, and HIV/AIDS.

Another major problem associated with poverty in developing countries is increased crime. Where there is widespread unemployment and a lack of economic opportunities, many people tend to turn to criminal activity to survive.

A lack of education is another result of poverty in developing countries. Children and teenagers have to leave school early to help support their families in some instances, and in others, there are simply no schools close enough for children to attend.

These problems tend to affect one another. For example, better education is tied to better health because people learn how to prevent infectious diseases. Educated mothers seek immunizations for their children and learn how to better care for them, and as a result, children are more likely to live longer.

Poverty also hinders the empowerment of women. On the other hand, when women are able to break the cycle of poverty and become educated, they are less likely to marry at a very young age. They will also be able to assist in raising their family's standard of living by becoming involved in the workforce.

In developing countries, these problems often follow a cyclical pattern: poverty leads to poor health and a lack of education, and poor health and little education in turn contribute to ongoing poverty.

Last Updated by eNotes Editorial on October 17, 2019
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Poverty has many effects throughout the developing world. Most prominently, poverty leads to poor healthcare, hunger, and poor education quality. Without access to finances, there is very little available healthcare, and what does exist is typically low in quality. Additionally, hunger and starvation are prevalent because of poor access to food, improper irrigation, and a reliance on small local farms and crop sources. Finally, education is severely limited in these countries because of the lack of funding.

All of these things are intricately intertwined, as hunger leads to medical issues, and both of them cause people to miss what little educational opportunity they have, and a lack of schooling can be detrimental to their prospects that may give them access to medicine and food. Unfortunately, poverty is a self-reinforcing cycle.

Last Updated by eNotes Editorial on October 17, 2019
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There are many important impacts of poverty in developing nations, though many of these effects are hard to distinguish from causes of poverty.  In other words, there are many things that are both caused by poverty and help, in turn, to perpetuate that poverty.  Let us look at three such factors.

One effect of poverty is poor health.  People in developing countries who lack access to things like clean water, good sanitation, and good health care can often experience worse health than people in rich countries would.  This also helps lead to poverty because people who are in poor health a great deal of the time and thus will be less able to work and make money.

Another effect of poverty is poor education.  People who are very poor often need their children to help work to support the family.  They cannot afford to have a child who does not bring any economic benefit.  Therefore, even if schooling is completely free, parents might not be able to send their children to school.  This also helps lead to poverty because it ensures that generation after generation of people lack the education to get any jobs that are not menial.

A third effect of poverty is on the country as a whole, not on the individual.  This is that poverty leads to poor governance.  Governments with weak tax bases are not able to pay civil servants good wages.  They are not able to purchase all of the things that they need.  This leads to the existence of governments that cannot meet their citizens’ needs.  It also often leads to corruption.

All of these things are impacts of poverty, but all can also be seen as causes.

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