What are some of the main arguments Karl Marx makes in his book Das Kapital?

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One argument that Marx makes is the use of the dialectical method in being able to accurately depict the historical consciousness.  Marx makes the argument that the dialectics of Thesis, Antithesis, and Synthesis will end up defining the historical narrative in a manner that will expose the intrinsic weakness of capitalism.  It is in this light where one of Marx's main arguments arises in Das Kaptial.  

Another one of the central arguments in the work is how Marx asserts that capitalism is predicated upon the abuse and exploitation of the worker.  Marx demonstrates this in several contexts.  The underlying premise in his analysis of market fluctuations, the determination of value, and the advent of technology is that the worker must be exploited and manipulated by the capitalist for profit.  Marx argues that capitalism “reproduces and perpetuates the condition for exploiting the labourer. It incessantly forces labourers to sell their labour-power in order to live, and enables the capitalist to purchase labour-power in order that he may enrich himself.”   It is in this context in which Marx makes the argument that classes and economic stratification become an essential ingredient to capitalism, thereby hastening its own downfall.  As more wealth is generated for those at the top echelons of society, the resentment felt in the other realms will fester and thereby cause a radical change in the ownership of the means of production.  The "negation" that is enhanced through capitalism becomes a reason why Marx feels that it is doomed.  These become central to the thesis of Das Kapital.

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