What are some of the causes of the October (Bolshevik) Revolution in 1917?

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There were really two different Russian Revolutions and there were several causes of discontent that lead to each stage of the Revolution. The longterm discontent felt by a growing middle class who wanted a voice in the government and more liberal institutions had not been satisfied by the reforms promised in 1905. Peasants were still suffering from a lack of land and starvation, and many of the ethnic groups in Russia were unhappy that the government was dominated by one ethnic group. The backwardness and oppressiveness of the government simply was not allowing for change. Then came two other issues that became catalysts to spark a revolution from the already simmering discontent.

The first of these issues was the marriage of Czar Nicholas to Alexandra and the birth of their son, Alexis, who suffered from hemophilia. The dreadful illness of her son isolated Alexandra and made her very unpopular. First, the royal family was afraid of what the public would think of the illness of the...

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