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Lord of the Flies is full of literary references in order to present visual images that are powerful and easy to see in the mind's eye. Golding's language remains uncomplicated and it is an allegory where the characters carry symbolic significance which enables Golding to convey the central themes and ideas through the boys' characters.
Ralph, as the representation of what is good in the fight against evil (as personified by Jack) is the first (along with Piggy) to be identified on the island. When he and Piggy come across the conch, it is symbolic and will feature many times throughout the novel as a sign of good order (especially where there isn't any) and democracy.
deep cream, touched here and there with fading pink. Between the point, worn away into a little hole, and the pink lips of the mouth, lay eighteen inches of shell with a slight spiral twist and covered with a delicate embossed pattern.
Such a precious, beautiful shell but there can be no illusions about Jack who, right from the start is clearly not the gentle type:
Out of this face stared two light blue eyes, frustrated now, and turning, or ready to turn, to anger.
The allegorical essence of the novel is carried throughout and you will find in chapters 4 and 9, sufficient references to help you.
the uniforms’ illusion of authority
ties in well with the significance of the boys painting their faces later when they become 'tribal' and perpetuate the descent into savagery as Jack attempts to perfect his 'warpaint.'
He made one cheek and one eye-socket white..(ch4)
Jack is excited and quickly identifies with his changing character and dances and transforms the dance into a “bloodthirsty snarling.”
Remembering that the main theme is Man's descent into complete savagery, Simon, in Chapter 9 becomes its victim!
Kill the beast! Cut his throat! Spill his blood!
This is the mantra for Jack and his 'tribe' and even Piggy and Ralph succumb to a lesser degree, thus reinforcing Golding's belief's that people are molded by society and outside of these constraints, order will not win the day.
Please note that eNotes rules prevent the answering of more than one question (and a closely related question) which is why I have concentrated on the same literary references(allegory, illusion, metaphor) in the chapters that you require. This shold help and you can refer to the eNotes study guide and navigate to the relevant pages for more examples.
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