What are some literary devices used in Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream in Act I, scene i, lines 226-251

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In this section, Helena laments that Demetrius's love has turned from her to Hermia and then discusses love's attributes in general. Shakespeare has her use personification: in an extended metaphor, Helena likens love first to a person, and then to a little boy. Helena gives loves human characteristics: it has eyes and a mind, and it sees with its mind (or imagination, a human trait), not its eyes. She then goes on to compare love to Cupid, usually depicted as a young, winged boy, musing that love is indeed like a boy who "forswears" (lies) at his games, perjuring himself "everywhere." Thinking about Demetrius, who one day had nothing but words of love for her, only to turn almost instantly to Hermia, Helena personifies love as a child that can almost immediately be "beguiled" into changing its loyalties.

Shakespeare also uses rich imagery in this passage, meaning he paints a picture with words. First, Helena mentions "wing'd Cupid painted blind." We can see in our imaginations a painting of Cupid, perhaps from a Valentine, depicted with a blindfold so he can't see. Shakespeare also has Helena compare a lover's words to hail, something which might strike us hard but quickly melts. 

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A Midsummer Night's Dream

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