In South Africa, a system of racial segregation named apartheid was established in 1948 by the National Party, an all-white gubernatorial body. Apartheid created conditions where non-white South Africans, a majority of the population, were forced to live in separate areas, were required to use separate public facilities, and were forced to not interact with white South Africans.
As we consider some of the influences that led to the creation of the system, we must first realize that racial segregation and white supremacy were predominant within the country of South African long before the official apartheid policies were created. Consider that in 1911, long before apartheid, the Land Act created territorial segregation where black Africans were required to live on reserves and were forbidden to partake in work as sharecroppers.
Another major influence in the birth of apartheid was the economic downturn in South Africa following The Great Depression and World War II. These economic woes created even more racial tension and disparities as black Africans were required to live along tribal lines to decrease their political power.