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What are some of important contributions of the Sumerians to later societies?  

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As the first major civilization in the Fertile Crescent, many of the accomplishments of the Sumerians set the stage for the civilizations that would follow. For one thing, their innovations in irrigating the farmland around the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers showed future peoples how to make the land prosperous. By demonstrating how water could be transported and saved in order to make otherwise barren land fertile, the Sumerians set the stage for the rapid growth of civilization in the region.

They also left the legacy of the wheel. While the Sumerians seemed to have mostly used wheeled technology in the manufacturing and crafting of ceramics, later peoples would adapt it for use in transportation. The Assyrians would take the wheel to a whole new level in adapting it for use in weaponized chariots.

It is thought that the Sumerians developed the earliest organized military formations. They divided up their fighting forces between infantry, archers, and calvary, which all had various levels...

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