Here are a few basic ones:
- Sociological imagination. This is something all good sociologists must have. It is the ability to be able to think about everything from very personal subjects (sex and marriage, for example) to impersonal (globalization) and to see connections between the two.
- Functionalism. A major sociological theory that says that every aspect of our society (from family to poverty) exists because it has a function in keeping our society stable.
- Conflict perspective. A Marxist approach that says that most aspects of our society are brought about through conflict between different groups of people in society.
- Interactionism. A third approach that says that we interact with one another and our society based on the meaning we give to our actions and to the things we interact with.