There are many examples to choose from, going back many years. Even the discovery that the earth rotated around the sun caused controversy, with its advocate of that position, Galileo, actually put on trial, nearly 400 years ago. Moving forward a bit, the theory of evolution has been causing controversy since Darwin advanced it in 1859, even up to the present day, in which there are those who insist that science is wrong. More recent examples of scientific progress that have caused controversy are birth control, the understanding of the fragile eco-systems of our planet, stem cell research, and a grasp of the mechanics of global warming.
Looking back over the examples I have offered, I see a pattern here that suggests that science and religion and science and politics have been clashing for a very long time. This is a pity because each is a completely separate sphere and in a better world, there would be no conflict because science is a matter of inquiry and evidence, while religion and politics are matters, respectively, of belief and power.