Many critics feel that Emily Bronte's Wuthering Heights is somewhere between a Romantic and a Gothic novel. Roger Moore writes,
The lightning rod of this issue is Heathcliff, an individual who necessarily evokes powerful but somewhat contradictory responses from the other characters in the novel and from the reader as well.
Here, then, are elements found in Bronte's work that will serve to support the contention that this novel is Gothic:
- A Gothic setting
The landscape, while not containing a traditional Gothic castle, is certainly mysterious and sinister at times with its wind and atmospheric tumults, its rocky outcroppings and haunted moors and dark shadows. The Yorkshire houses, especially that of the Earnshaws are ruggedly sparse.
- The Supernatural
When Mr. Lockwood must stay the night because of the icy weather, a servant places him in a room where the bed is in a sort of closet, and he has the Gothic flickering candle as his only guide to this spot. While in the oak closet, Lockwood experiences the supernatural. After reading from Catherine Earnshaw's diaries, he is awakened by a branch knocking against a window and feels that he must stop this disturbing sound. However, when he attempts to open the window, the lock will not give; so, he breaks the pane only to have his arm grabbed by an icy hand. Lockwood asks the ghost who she is, and she replies, "Catherine Linton," who has come home after twenty years. When Lockwood shouts in fear, Heathcliff appears, angry that Lockwood is in the room. When Lockwood explains, Heathcliff strikes his forehead in rage; then, he sends Lockwood away with the candle. In the dark, Heathcliff wrenches open the lattice and cries out in "an uncontrollable passion of tears"
"Cathy do come....Oh my heart's darling! hear me this time, Catherine, at last!"
- A willful hero-villain, driven by extreme passion and excessive behavior
Heathcliff begs the spirit of Catherine to visit him; as a young man when she died, he has begged her to haunt him. He victimizes Hareton Earnshaw, cruelly treating him in much the same way that Hareton's father, Hindley, dealt with him.
In Chapter 16 when Catherine dies after giving birth to her daughter, Heathcliff is told that she is dead; impassioned, he cries, "May she wake in torment!" And, he prays that Catherine will haunt him because "[T]he murdered do haunt their murderers." Then, moaning that he cannot live with his "life" and his "soul," Heathcliff departs from the Lintons:
...he dashed his head against the knotted trunk; and lifting up his eyes, howled, not like a man, but like a savage beast being goaded to death with knives and spears."
A full generation later, after his scheme to join his son Linton and Cathy's daughter Catherine and usurp inheritances is foiled by Linton's death, Heathcliff, who is haunted by his vision of his long-dead paramour, starves himself to death after having arranged for himself to be buried next to Catherine.
- A curious heroine who possesses weaknesses
Catherine Earnshaw tells Nellie that Heathcliff is
"more myself that I am...whatever our souls are made of, he and I are the same."
This statement is suggestive of Catherine as victim as she feels that she has no identity of her own and longs for the life after death. As she lies dying, she tells Heathcliff,
"You and Edgar have broken my heart, Heathcliff! … I shall not be at peace."
In death, as in life, Catherine is in need of rescue.