what are some of the elements of the setting
As for the setting: there is the Time, Place.
You see there are many things that can help you find the setting of the story, in some stories that setting might be seen directly, for example they would say: “In a cold night in a small village in England this and this happened” you see they said that the timing was night, the place is a small village in England. As for some stories the setting might not be direct and you have to be smart to figure it out. For example a story can say: “He opened his Facebook and found an email from her” this would show you that the events of the story happened in a modern times because Facebook is modern and hasn’t been there since forever! Another way to get the setting would be through the characters; for example if your character is named “Alehandro” then the story has some elements of the culture of Mexico. Or if the story is about a boy named “Mohammed” then it has the Arab’s culture.
Another thing you need to pay attention to is the universal theme; a story might not have a specific setting because the writer wants it to be universal (Everyone from everywhere can relate to it) for example the setting of “The Bet” by Anton Chekhov has a universal theme because it has no names, no specific place because he wants anyone to relate to it. A Universal theme doesn’t have a specific culture in the story; you can have general names in the story that can be found everywhere such as Sarah.