Diseases caused by fungi tend to be in areas that are easily reached by things in the environment; they are found on the skin, in the lungs, in the ears. Fungal diseases that affect internal organs are quite serious, and can be fatal.
Fungal diseases are called mycoses. The one most commonly found throughout the world is sporotrichosis; it is found in the soil, and infects farmers and gardeners. Other fungi can cause ringworm, athlete's foot, valley fever, and histoplasmosis. I've attached a link that details the types of fungi that cause disease, and the diseases and treatments available.