What were some of the differences between the Roman republic and Roman Empire?  

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The main difference between the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire is that in the Empire, power was mostly concentrated in the person of the emperor. This can be contrasted to the more powerful and influential Senate during the Republic. While the Senate remained but with less influence during the Empire, the Emperor essentially assumed the roles of consul, censor, and pontifex maximus.

One might naturally think that the citizenry had more political power during the Republic than during the Empire. This is however not necessarily the case. Most Romans were either slaves, freedmen, or women, all of whom had no political power in ancient Rome during either period. In fact, during certain periods of the Empire, the government did more to support the average Roman than during most of the Republic. The political system during the Republic mostly enfranchised the relatively small circle of patrician males in Rome, but few others. Later on, there were certain Emperors, such as Marcus...

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