What were some differences between the Aztec Empire and the Roman Empire? 

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One of the biggest differences was that the Roman Empire was more multicultural. Given its enormous size, it was inevitable that it would encompass a greater variety of tribes, religions, and ethnic groups. The Aztec Empire also consisted of different ethnic groups, but they were much more homogeneous and much...

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One of the biggest differences was that the Roman Empire was more multicultural. Given its enormous size, it was inevitable that it would encompass a greater variety of tribes, religions, and ethnic groups. The Aztec Empire also consisted of different ethnic groups, but they were much more homogeneous and much more closely linked together through culture and religion. All of the subject peoples in the Aztec Empire followed polytheistic religions; that is to say that they worshipped many gods. This made it easier for the dominant Mexica people to establish a state religion to which all could adhere.

In the Roman Empire, by contrast, there were those (such as Jews and Christians) who worshipped only one God as well as polytheism. This created a bone of contention with the imperial authorities, for whom outward worship of Roman deities was necessary for the maintenance of good order and stability in the Empire.

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There are obvious differences between the Roman Empire and the Aztecs. Rome controlled a much larger area than the Aztecs. Rome at its height had authority over one and a half million square miles compared to the Aztecs which ruled over less than one hundred thousand miles. This is probably due to the fact that agricultural production was much more difficult in Mexico than it was on the Italian peninsula. The Aztecs chose their land in an area that was swampy. They had to overcome this limitation by constructing islands called chinampas. The preparation of the land would have required a great deal of effort before crops could even be cultivated. Rome was located in a very fertile area and farming was much easier.

The political system of Rome, even during the period of emperors, afforded citizens more participation in government. The Roman emperors were never as powerful as the kings of the Aztec empires. Much of the power of the Aztec king derived from religion being such a central part of the Aztec culture. Religion dominated every facet of Aztec life and was so extreme that it called for human sacrifice. In Ancient Rome, religion was tolerated but did not dictate the politics of the state. There was a greater variety of religions in Rome while the Aztecs were united under one religion.

One final difference was found in the militaries of the two empires. While both relied on their military for expansion, the weapons of the Romans were stronger and more sophisticated than that of the Aztecs. The Romans also had a full-time professional army.  While the Aztecs considered all men soldiers they did not use them on a full-time basis.

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