What are some decisions that the U.S. government has made recently?
As pohnpei suggests, it's a very long list. Consider that our government at just the federal level has over 550 people, not including federal judges (of which there are thousands) and cabinet members, agency employees, etc. There are decisions on a daily basis.
Recently the government has also decided to pursue a surge strategy in Afghanistan, sending more troops there to try and break the back of a stubborn insurgency called the Taliban. At the same time, the government has decided to reduce the number of troops in Iraq to 50,000 by the end of August, a 2/3 reduction from its peak.
The health care reform package that passed both houses and was signed by the President was the first real reform in 45 years. The government also recently decided to require BP oil to hold $20 billion in a special fund to compensate economic victims of the oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico.
I am not completely sure what you mean here. The US government makes lots of decisions all the time.
Perhaps the most important recent decision that the US government has made has been to pass the bill about the regulation of banks and financial institutions. The government decided to put more regulations on these institution in an attempt to prevent problems like the financial crisis of 2008 from happening again.
Just today, the Supreme Court decided that the Second Amendment applies to state and local governments as well as to the national government. This may make it harder to have gun control laws. It also decided that a law school can deny funding to a Christian student group because it did not allow gay members.
Don't forget the decision regarding the oil spill in the Gulf. Congress has held hearings questioning BP and has come up with some new policies.
(On a side note, the White House Garden has recently added a hive of bees to help pollinate its organic garden).