Sometimes managers operate with a confirmation bias. This means that when problems or questions arise, they seek out information that aligns with the viewpoint they already hold and ignore data that supports other or differing claims. This could hinder progress as the conclusions managers reach may not be in the best interests of their company or employees. Managers need to therefore always consider how their own biases may be impacting the ways they collect and analyze data and seek out others with varying points of view to help aid in gathering data for decision making.
The halo effect can also affect managers in their decisions. In this case, managers transfer their favorable impressions of one idea, product, or person to all other related tasks or activities. This could mean that an employee who takes on new tasks with consistent enthusiasm and energy is seen without question as a faithful worker; however, this same employee could be completing the work halfheartedly or could be taking on more work than she can feasibly handle if left unchecked. A common example of the halo effect is that attractive employees are often considered more competent workers than unattractive employees.
Managers can also be the victims of overconfidence. In this case, they believe themselves overly capable of handling all decisions, which can lead to detrimental managerial decisions. Whether managers believe themselves a better manager than they actually are, more intelligent than they actually are, possessing more control than they actually do, or able to organize a project quicker than is actually possible, overconfidence leaves lots of room for error. It thus helps if managers temper their own expectations with a worst-case scenario in order to better manage workers and projects.