In Oscar Wilde's "The Nightingale and the Rose," what are the social backgrounds of the characters? How is the problem caused/created? How is the conflict resolved?

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The object of the student's affections is clearly a member of the social elite, otherwise she wouldn't have been invited to the Prince's ball. We're not sure of the student's social background but it's highly unlikely that he'd be able to keep the young lady he adores so much in...

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The object of the student's affections is clearly a member of the social elite, otherwise she wouldn't have been invited to the Prince's ball. We're not sure of the student's social background but it's highly unlikely that he'd be able to keep the young lady he adores so much in the style to which she's become accustomed. The Professor's daughter is clearly someone who attaches great importance to all the accouterments of wealth, which the student simply cannot give her.

This would explain why she summarily rejects the student's red rose—in return for which she promised she'd dance with him—as she's received some fancy jewels given to her by the Chamberlain's nephew. The student had hoped that by giving the Professor's daughter a beautiful red rose he would gain her affection; that was the little problem the nightingale wanted to help him solve. But the young lady's rejection of the student and his gift indicates that the conflict between the student's romanticized ideal of love and its often harsh reality can never fully be resolved.

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Oscar Wilde's "The Nightingale and the Rose" is a short story, written almost in the form of a parable, about a student who is in love with a young woman, the daughter of a professor, and a nightingale who loves the student. The characters are not named, and the description of their background is fairly limited. The young woman appears to be quite wealthy and materialistic. Her wealth is epitomized by her clothing and her being invited to the Prince's ball. The student appears less wealthy than the Chamberlain's son, and thus is not the favored lover of the girl. 

The main conflict in the story is that the girl has promised to dance with the student if he finds a red rose for her, but the student cannot find a red rose. The nightingale, trying to please the student, kills herself to color a rose red for the student.

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