The logical structure of an argument consists of that argument’s central claim and reasons. What is a claim? A claim is a proposition, an assertion, an opinion, even a statement that some might consider a fact.
Each of the following, for instance, is a claim:
1) This soup is awful.
2) The earth is round.
3) Citizen Kane is the best movie ever made.
4) We shouldn’t put computers in classrooms.
5) Martin stole my notebook.
Rarely are claims made as explicitly in the world as they are in academic papers, where the central claim of an essay usually sits right at the end of the opening paragraph. The world is full of claims and that learning to recognize them is one of the primary skills involved in critical reading.
A good reason is one that you and your audience can link to your claim. Put another way, a good reason is one that you and your audience will accept as legitimate support for your claim. There really is no one way to determine whether reasons are good reasons. You have to look at the claim and the rhetorical situation. Who’s the audience? What’s the occasion of the argument? What’s the purpose of the person making the argument? Use your own judgment when making the call.
In logic, an argument refers to a set of two or more propositions related to each other in such a way that all of them except one, called premise, are supposed to logically support the other one, called conclusion. The logical connection between the premise and the conclusion is called the inference. These component of an argument (premise, conclusion, and inference), and their relationship with each other represent the structure of an argument.
Thus structure of an argument consists of propositions of different two types - premise and conclusion, in which the the truth of the conclusion is supposed to follow from the truth of premises based on the inferential connection between the two . For example look at the argument consisting of following argument.
Earth is a planet. So earth revolves around the sun, since all planets revolve around the sun.
In this the premise that earth is a planet, and that all planets revolve around the sun, is used to conclude inferentially that Earth revolves around the sun.