I can think of two very specific ways in which the literary tenets of Modernism appeared in visual art of the 30s.
Modernists argued for multiple ways of looking at the world. Your chair probably challenges the "chair-ness" of the traditional concept of chairs in some way.
Modernists held that no thing or person was born for a specific use. A chair may be shaped as a chair in some way, but its usefulness need not be limited to providing a seat. Its purpose may simply be art, or it may be both art and a seat. Functionality was not the ultimate goal.