What are some similarities and differences between setting goals in a business context?
This is a very broad question. The reason for this is twofold. First, all people are different and the goals of businesses are different as well. In light of this, there will be a myriad of similarities and differences. In light of this, I will make a few general comments that will help you.
First, most businesses have one commonality, that is, businesses desire to be profitable. In other words, most companies want to minimize costs and maximize profits. This is almost without exception true for all businesses, even non-profit companies and organizations.
Second, there are also differences in terms of goals. For example, some companies might want to be a large as possible. Other companies might want to stay at a smaller size. Some companies might want international exposure; other might only want a domestic market. Some companies might want to cater to the masses; other might only want to cater to a niche group. As you can see, there will be many variables.