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What similarities exist between the ancient civilizations of Harappa and Mesopotamia?  

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Greg Jackson eNotes educator | Certified Educator

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There are indeed a number of similarities between the ancient Mesopotamian and Harappan civilizations. Much more is known about the Mesopotamian civilizations than Harappa as the former left decipherable textual histories. All we know about the Harappan people must therefore come solely from archaeological interpretations.

Both civilizations relied heavily on rivers. They used rivers for transportation as well as irrigation. Having a relatively reliable source of water meant that they were able to support large-scale agriculture that allowed them to feed a large population. In order to best make use of the available water, both civilizations developed irrigation and water storage techniques and technology.

Agriculture requires complex divisions of labor. Both the Mesopotamians and the Harappans had a large farmer class which was responsible for growing the food to feed centralized urban populations. City dwellers, free from the burden of growing food, were employed as merchants and...

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