What significant ghost does Odysseus speak with in the land of the dead?  

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In the Land of the Dead, Odysseus encounters several significant ghosts. One that troubles him deeply is the ghost of his mother, Anticleia, because when he left home, she had still been alive. Odysseus speaks with many other ghosts and observes still more. His mission in going there—since he himself is still alive—is, per Circe’s instructions, to connect with Tiresias, the blind prophet of Thebes, who can instruct him about his return home.

Tiresias is important because he provides valuable information about the actions and motivations of Poseidon, who, as the ocean god, affects the seas Odysseus must sail. He reveals the source of Poseidon’s grudge against the Achaeans: They blinded his son, Polyphemus.

Tiresias issues predictions and warnings. He correctly predicts that Odysseus will find his home in disorder, and he warns him away from the herds of the Oxen of the Sun that he will encounter on Thrinacia.

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The most significant figure Odysseus encounters in the underworld (Book 11 of the Odyssey) is Achilles, the central character from Homer's Iliad. Achilles, a demigod, was the greatest Greek warrior. He killed Hector, Troy's most prominent warrior, as revenge for the death of Achilles' friend Patroclus. As was prophesied, Achilles later dies and becomes prince of Hades. Unfortunately, Achilles--cavalier toward death while alive--now wishes he could return to the land of the living. As he tells Odysseus:

“I’d rather be another’s hired hand,……than to rule over all whom death has crushed.”

Another significant ghost Odysseus encounters is that of Agamemnon, the former king of Argos. After winning the Trojan War, Agamemnon had returned home, where his wife--Clytaemnestra--and her lover--Aegisthus--murdered him (The Greek playwright Aeschylus narrates this event in Agamemnon, the first play in the Oresteia trilogy). Due to his fate, Agamemnon cautions Odysseus against placing too much trust in his wife, Penelope, when he finally returns home to Ithaca.

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