The Old Man and the Sea by Ernest Hemingway

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Why does Santiago dream of lions in The Old Man and the Sea?

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One potential meaning behind the dream of the lions is connected to an idea of the afterlife or heaven. An old man, Santiago no longer dreams of success and strife in life. Instead, he dreams of a different "place" altogether, somewhere outside of the social context of achievement, success and failure that he has lived within for so long. 

Santiago's narration recounts the idea that the lions he had seen on the coast of Africa are part of a picturesque and pristine set of images and memories. The sights and smells are calm and lovely to him. 

His Africa is a place of peace. 

Notably, the many events and elements of his life and his life's ambition are absent from the dream of the lions. 

"He no longer dreamed of storms, nor or women, nor of great occurrences, nor of great fish, nor fights, nor contests of strength, nor of his wife. [...] only of the lions on the beach." 

After a lifetime of these things, Santiago, El Campeon, now dreams of an opposite set of images. The "white peaks" of the Canary Islands with their playful lion cubs are foreign to his experience - a very different setting from the rather masculine and codified world he has lived in. 

Santiago is one of Hemingway's most sentimental characters, but at the same time adheres to a code of behavior that leads him to revel in his memories of arm-wrestling and in his admiration for Joe DiMaggio. This is all left behind when he dreams of the lions playing in what amounts to a paradise. 

Santiago is religious. He prays and reflects on the relationships of man to the larger world in ways that are consistent with a mystical/Catholic sensibility. That his heaven would be a place near the sea in a foreign land characterized by natural beauty is not surprising.

So, when Santiago lies utterly exhausted in his ambiguous victory/defeat at the end of the narrative, he dreams of the lions -...

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