In "The Fall of the House of Usher," what is the significance of the narrator himself becoming affected by Roderick's condition?

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Besides the interpretations already explained in other posts, it is also possible that the narrator is telling the truth about the events of the story. Many of Poe’s stories contain elements of the supernatural, so I don’t think we can discount the possibility that the House of Usher—both the family and the physical dwelling—is cursed.

Before even meeting Usher, the narrator perceives the vapor that seems to emit from the ground and surround the structure. This could suggest that Usher’s “superstitions” about the house are not just a figment of his imagination but rather observable phenomena.

With this interpretation in mind, the narrator could be experiencing “symptoms” that are more related to the house itself than to whatever mysterious illness from which Usher suffers. The narrator, then, cannot escape the nefarious influence of the oppressive house, which might literally be causing such an uneasy feeling.

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Roderick and Madeline Usher are not only twins but also possess a seemingly supernatural bond that connects them physically. When Madeline begins to lose her physical health, Roderick finds that his senses have been acutely heightened. When the narrator and Roderick place Madeline in a tomb following her death, Roderick’s mental state seems to slip into madness. He sits focused on things that are unseen. He mouths indecipherable words. And he becomes convinced that he and the narrator have buried Madeline alive.

Did they? This is a crucial question in determining the actual events at the end of the story. Poe frequently uses an unreliable narrator to convey events, and it is certainly possible that the narrator himself has peered too far into the mind of a madman and is now slipping into madness himself. The dark and troubled mind of Roderick has gripped the narrator, who now sees things that are not there. He simply sees (and reports, through his narration) what he thinks he sees. Roderick himself calls the narrator a madman twice in the closing paragraphs.

Thus, Poe seems to be commenting that darkness can spread when left unbridled.

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It is of course no surprise that the anonymous narrator himself becomes affected by Roderick's rather bizarre and depressive behaviour after the death of his sister, Madeline. Note how he comments upon his own change as a result of the amount of time he is spending with Roderick without any other human company:

It was no wonder that his condition terrified--that it infected me. I felt creeping upon me, by slow yet certain degrees, the wild influences of his own fantastic yet impressive superstitions.

This is of course key to establish the Gothic nature of the text. One of the key components of Gothic literature is the way in which it uses unreliable narrators to create a sense of disturbing uncertainly about the presentation of what is supposedly "real." The way in which the narrator himself admits that he becomes impacted by Roderick's gloom and doom makes us wonder about the accuracy of his account and the rest of the fantastical story that he narrates. Does it really happen, or is it just the result of his frenzied and darkened imagination as a result of having spent so long with Roderick? Such uncertainty is key to the unsettling feel that all Gothic texts display.

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