Schindler's List takes place in and around Krakow, Poland.
There are a few major locations in the film. The most important one is Oscar Schindler's factory. It's in the factory that Schindler comes to care about the Jewish people working for him. They live out parts of their life there, from normal work days to birthday parties.
Another important location is the Paszów Labor Camp. This is where some of the earliest scenes in the movie take place, as Schindler meets with the Nazi commandant of the camp. It's grim and bleak. Thousands of people are murdered there. Many of Schindler's workers come from this labor camp where people are forced to work as slaves. Auschwitz Concentration Camp is also in the film because some of Schindler's workers are sent there by mistake and he has to go get them released.
The Krakow ghetto is another location where important things happen. When Schindler is there and sees the Nazis abusing and killing the Jewish people, he fully understands what their plans are. This is what changes him completely; he works against the Nazis to try to keep as many Jewish people as he can safe by employing them in his factory.
Eventually, Schindler decides to move his business to Brünnlitz, Czechoslovakia. He purchases more than 1000 Jewish people to come along as his labor so that they won't be killed in Paszów.
The end of the film takes place in Jerusalem, where Schindler is laid to rest after his death.