What are the Rousseau's criticisms of the Enlightenment? 

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Although he is often lumped in with the great philosophers of the Enlightenment, Jean-Jacques Rousseau would have balked at this association. Those who know his work best consider this thinker to be the father of what is often termed the Counter-Enlightenment. Let's look at why.

Much of the Enlightenment philosophy focussed on the worth of the individual and the source of their natural rights. Enlightenment thinkers often argued that people enter into a social contract to protect their natural rights. Rousseau felt that this focus ignored the common bonds that tied all of humanity. He saw society in which natural rights were subordinated for the social contract as preferable. This more collectivist approach focused more on the good of society than the individual.

Much of this was religiously focussed. It was matters of religion where Rousseau and the Enlightenment philosophers had most of their differences. Ever since the emergence of Humanism during the Renaissance and culminating in the Enlightenment, there had been a growing intellectual movement in Europe that was overtly anticlerical. Enlightenment philosophers often argued in favor of reason and rationality instead of faithful religious observance. Conversely, Rousseau argued for a philosophical return to Christian thought. He still saw a great need for change in organized religious structure. However, he did not reject it outright like the deists of the period. Unlike Voltaire, Locke, and Hume, Rousseau even saw a place for religious and political institutions to function together.

Furthermore, most Enlightenment philosophers took an agnostic view of God. If anything, they saw God as impersonal designer of the universe. Rousseau, on the other hand, viewed God as the conscious source of good and beauty in the world. In this way, he can be seen as more of a precursor of the Romantic era than a product of the Enlightenment.

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Rousseau prefigured much of the later Romantic criticism of the Enlightenment. He looked upon society as developing organically, with all its elements inextricably linked. This put him in conflict with the mainstream of Enlightenment thought that tended to regard society as a loose collection of individual atoms. Rousseau rejected this conception, as it alienated individuals from each other. According to Rousseau's vision of society, individual citizens were naturally bound to each other, and political institutions needed to reflect this. Everyone needed to be able to see themselves reflected in the society in which they lived, and the institutions of state to whose authority they subjected themselves.

The atomized social ideal of the Enlightenment was unable to do this, thought Rousseau, because it was based on an abstract individualism which failed to take account of how real people actually behaved in real societies. As such, citizens would always be alienated from the state in which they lived, seriously impairing society's harmony as well as its capacity to function.

As the Enlightenment conception of the society was artificial, so too, thought Rousseau, was its understanding of the state. The state, in the minds of Enlightenment thinkers, had become a rational construct set over against the people. But without an intimate, organic connection between state and citizen, it was inevitable, thought Rousseau, that the state and its artificial institutions would distort the natural goodness of man, separating man from his fellow man, and alienating him from his true self.

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Although chronologically  Jean-Jacques Rousseau is considered an Enlightenment author, as stated in the previous response, he is often described as a counter-Enlightenment thinker, representing the Romantic revolt against the scientific and rational leanings of Enlightenment philosophy. In particular, in his Discourse on the Sciences and Arts, Rousseau makes the point that science did not improve morality nor contribute a great deal to happiness. He argues historically that the ages in which science has triumphed have not been ones distinguished by civic virtue or morality. 

Unlike such philosophers as Locke and Hobbes, Rousseau does not see the growth of civilization as progress from a natural life that is "nasty, brutish, and short" but paints an almost Edenic (albeit secular) portrait of human nature in its original natural state. Much of his approach to civic and individual virtue, rather than emphasizing the pure reason valorized by Enlightenment ideals also argues for the importance of empathy as the grounds of morality. 

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