What role does fortune have in the life of the courtier, according to Baldassare Castiglione in his The Book of the Courtier?
References to fortune are quite frequent in Baldassare Castiglione’s work The Book of the Courtier. In one translation, there are 33 such references in all (see link below). Choosing a representative passage is therefore difficult, and this difficulty is compounded by the fact that The Book of the Courtier consists of dialogues presenting varied points of view on various issues.
A review of the reference to fortune in The Book of the Courtier suggests, however, that Castiglione tended to present fortune as most Renaissance authors do: as something unpredictable, often unfair, and totally random. Renaissance thinkers tended to believe that fortune could not be controlled; all that could be controlled was one’s reactions to fortune. Ideally, a person was expected to be able to deal with both good and bad fortune by showing self-control, good judgment, reason, and restraint. Good fortune should not cause pride; bad fortune should not cause despair. Instead, persons should try to live their lives as virtuously as possible, without being unduly affected either by prosperity or by adversity. This kind of balanced, sensible, reasonable approach to fortune was especially valuable in a courtier, who was more likely even than most people to experience sudden changes in fortune.
One passage in The Book of the Courtier that exemplifies some of the ideas just described is this one:
Yet cheeflye in warr is much set by that true manlines, which maketh the minde voide from all passions, so that he not onlye feareth not perilles, but passeth not upon them. Likewise steadfastnesse, and pacyence, abidinge with a quiet and untroubled minde all the strokes of fortune. It is beehouffull likewise in warr and at all other times to have all the vertues that beelonge to honestye, as justice, staidnesse, sobermoode: but muche more in peace and rest, because often times men in prosperitie and rest, whan favourable fortune fauneth upon them, wexe unrighteous, untemperate, and suffre themselves to be corrupted with pleasures.
In this passage, the speaker clearly celebrates patience, reason, and self-control, no matter what kind of fortune a person experiences. This was by far the most typical teaching about fortune to be found in many Renaissance texts, including The Book of the Courtier.