The Ottoman Empire ruled over a large territory comprised of numerous nationalities. Although they were ruled by the Turks, these people retained a strong sense of their own national identity. Over the course of the nineteenth century, some of these nationalities asserted themselves. Notions of national self-rule emerged from the Enlightenment and Romantic periods and took hold throughout Europe.
This led to several independence movements in the Ottoman Empire. For instance, throughout the 1820s, the Greeks fought for and attained their independence from the Ottomans and established their own nation-state. Other parts of the Ottoman Empire fell away over the course of the 1800s as nationalistic movements arose within them. This includes Bulgaria, Montenegro, and Bosnia.
Even Turkish nationalism contributed to the Ottoman Empire's downfall. The Young Turk movement and revolution of 1908 was a nationalistic uprising that led to the restoration of the Ottoman constitution. This triggered an...
(The entire section contains 4 answers and 854 words.)