This is a huge question, since the Canadian Charter protects so many right of people. In light of this, I will break down the freedoms into several headings, the very ones that the Charter gives: (1) Fundamental Freedoms, (2) Democratic Freedoms, (3) Mobility Rights, (4) Legal Rights, and (5) Equality Rights.
The Fundamental Freedoms include the freedom of religion, peaceful assembly, and association. The Democratic Freedoms allow people to vote and hold office. Mobility Rights allow citizens to stay and enjoy Canada and also the right to leave Canada, if they should desire. These rights also allow people to move around and settle down in any province of Canada. Legal Rights give people the right to life, liberty, and security of person. Within these are also right of illegal detention. Finally, Equality Rights offer people all of the above irrespective of who they are - color, race, ethnic origin, age, disabilities, and the like.
I will attach the charter as a document.
As you can see, the Canadian Charter is a document that seek to give people the right to an abundant life within the laws of the land.