Given that the trial of Tom Robinson, to determine whether or not he in fact raped Mayella Ewell, is arguably the central portion of the plot, there are quite a few results of this conflict.
One is that Atticus Finch is engaged as the defense for Tom Robinson. This creates a conflict with many people in the town but also provides the backdrop for Scout and Jem and others to learn about how Atticus feels about black people in their town and in general and how that differs from the attitude of much of the town.
It is also clear that the trial and Mayella's testimony served to highlight some of the problems in the Ewell family as she has a difficult time denying that her father abuses her and her claim of rape may in fact be her attempt to protect her from her own father after she reached out to Tom for affection.
In the end, one might also argue that the conflict between Tom and the Ewells leads to Bob Ewell's death at the hands of Boo Radley. After the trial and the embarrassment of it, Bob is set on hurting Atticus but he chooses to attack Scout since he is too cowardly to attack Atticus directly. Boo Radley intervenes and kills Bob.