The major immediate result of Martin Luther's posting of his 95 Theses in 1517 was what is now known as the Protestant Reformation. During the Reformation, the Catholic Church (which was then the only Christian Church in the West) split. By 1530, a Lutheran Church would emerge that was formally separate from the Catholic Church.
A more far-reaching result of Luther's posting (and of the Reformation itself) was the wave of religious wars that convulsed Europe as Catholic and Protestant countries fought one another, at least partly for religious reasons). A famous example of this was the attempted invasion of England (Protestant) by the Armada of Catholic Spain.