Barley is adapted to different growing conditions because of high ecological plasticity. Thus, in the northern hemisphere can grow up to 70 parallel north (Norway), and the altitude exceeds 2000 m.
Minimum temperature of germination is 1-2C and during the vegetation the optimum growth and development temperature is 22-26C. Amount of biologically active temperatures is 1700-2100C for winter barley and 1300-1800C for spring two-row barley. In winter, winter barley resists to temperatures up to-15C-17C and, covered with a layer of snow, up to-30C.
Spring two-row barley is more sensitive to low temperature, supporting at all temperatures below -10C.Winter barley humidity requirements are lower than two-row barley requirements, but critical stages are during the formation of straw and grain filling.
Compared with wheat, barley has higher requirements from the ground, due to less developed root system and weaker power of nutrients rendering soluble . In this connection the most suitable soils are chernozems and forest reddish brown. Sandy soils are contraindicated and those with excess moisture, acid or salt.
Morphological and physiological features
Compared with wheat, barley has a poorly developed root system, with reduced capacity of solubility of soluble compounds in the soil.Twining begins after the appearance of the 3rd leaf, takes 15-20 days, and is conducted at a temperature of 10-12C.Among cereals, barley is capable of twinning , on average it forms 2-3 fertile siblings.
In the spring of the year when the average temperature exceeded 10C, begins straw forming that, towards the end of development, will have 5-7 cross knots, with blue-green leaves, arranged alternate.Pollination is pollinating and flourishing, which runs morning and evening hours, is performed at temperatures around 15C.Fruit is formed within two weeks of fertilization, and maturation (with three phases: milk, wax and full)and is carried out in 10-12 days.
Climate is very important for barley vegetation. Air and soil temperatures are the significant factors that affect barley. Sowing time is directly influenced by soil condition. Rain fall in harvesting phase affect the quality of barley and the income coming from that. Sowing time is directely governed by soil conditions.
Cimate variability affect the yield of grain crop.