This is a great question. Religion is one of the most important factors in a person's life. Moreover, religious beliefs and convictions can shape a person's life in many different ways. This is particularly true in the African American culture, where there is a strong emphasis on matters of faith. This will have many ramifications.
Of the last few decades, one of the most important theological developments, at least in protestantism has been liberation theology. Liberation theology speaks of how God will overturn the misfortunes of the oppressed. This has encouraged many African American churches to seek change from the status quo. This has created greater accomplishment in many areas in the African American culture.
Another major development has been the health and wealth gospel. Many African American Christians see prosperity as normative and God's will for all people. This "prosperity gospel" is now nearly mainline.