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What is the relationship between state and citizenship in modern democratic societies?

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There are at least two aspects to this relationship.  There is a legal aspect and a more ethical aspect.

Legally, any person who fulfills certain criteria is a citizen in a democratic state.  The person need not be of a certain ethnic group or a certain religion.  With citizenship comes a variety of legal rights that bind the state.  The state must treat all of its citizens in certain ways that are prescribed by law.

Ethically, there are responsibilities that fall to the citizen.  A citizen in a democracy has the duty (even if many choose not to carry it out) to participate in the society.  A democracy cannot prosper with its citizens being neutral or passive.

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