What is the relationship between Grendel and Hrothgar in Beowulf?

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The relationship between Grendel and Hrothgar is one of hate; Grendel loathes the celebrations of God that take place at Heorot. Though Beowulf and Hrothgar had no personal relationship before Beowulf arrived to slay Grendel, Hrothgar knew Beowulf's father, respected him and believes that Beowulf might be able to help save Heorot. 

The narrator in Beowulf describes Grendel as a monster who was cast out from the sight of men. As Hrothgar builds Heorot and the men gather to enjoy their feasts and tales, Grendel stirs. The narrator describes Grendel, saying:

Grendel this monster grim was called,
march-riever mighty, in moorland living,
in fen and fastness; fief of the giants
the hapless wight a while had kept
since the Creator his exile doomed.
On kin of Cain was the killing avenged
by sovran God for slaughtered Abel.
Ill fared his feud, and far was he driven,
for the slaughter’s sake, from sight of men.
Of Cain awoke all that woful breed,
Etins and elves and evil-spirits,
as well as the giants that warred with God
weary while: but their wage was paid them!
Grendel arrives at Heorot and kills many of the men before returning to his lair. The men continue to use Heorot as a mead hall to praise God and tell stories of their own glory; Grendel returns to kill them. Grendel's actions bring Hrothgar great sorrow. The narrator says:
There came unhidden
tidings true to the tribes of men,
in sorrowful songs, how ceaselessly Grendel
harassed Hrothgar, what hate he bore him,
what murder and massacre, many a year,
feud unfading, — refused consent
to deal with any of Daneland’s earls,
make pact of peace, or compound for gold:
still less did the wise men ween to get
great fee for the feud from his fiendish hands.
This continues until the mead hall is abandoned since no one seems able to kill Grendel.
When Beowulf arrives to try his might against Grendel, he tells Hrothgar of his past exploits and successes fighting monsters. Ultimately Hrothgar is so sure of Beowulf's goodness and strength that he yields control of Heorot to Beowulf for a night while the men wait to fight Grendel, something he's never done for another man before. Hrothgar says:
Never to any man erst I trusted,
since I could heave up hand and shield,
this noble Dane-Hall, till now to thee.
Have now and hold this house unpeered;
remember thy glory; thy might declare;
watch for the foe! No wish shall fail thee
if thou bidest the battle with bold-won life.
Though Grendel and Hrothgar are enemies and locked in a feud that brought the king years of grief, the arrival of Beowulf gives Hrothgar hope for the first time and, ultimately, allows him to regain control of Heorot. 
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Hrothgar is King of the Danes while Grendel is his tormentor and considered a monster from Cain’s lineage and cursed by God. After winning many battles Hrothgar decides to build a mead hall which he...

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named Herot. He constructed this building to honor God and his people since they helped him throughout his many conquests. He held celebrations in Herot for his people until Grendel began to attack the mead-hall, killing everyone in sight. Grendel continued to kill Hrothgar’s warriors every night until the people abandoned the mead hall and this caused Hrothgar much sorrow. This situation continued for twelve years since no warrior could defeat Grendel and eventually the monster moved into the hall and stayed there every night. This went on until Beowulf, a famous warrior from the Geats, came to the aid of Hrothgar by fighting Grendel and mortally wounding the monster.

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The relationship between Hrothgar and Grendel, in Beowulf, is one of utter hatred. Hrothgar has built a mead hall, Heorot, to celebrate God and his power. Grendel, on the other hand, hates God. His anger stems from the fact that he is in exile given the sins of his ancestors.

Therefore, Grendel cannot come into the light (a symbol of God in the epic tale). That said, Grendel is a creature of the night and only comes out after the light of God has "set." Upon hearing the singing and praise of God, Grendel becomes infuriated and decides to take out his anger upon Hrothgar and his people.

Grendel enter into Heorot and murders many of the people. Hrothgar is so grief stricken that he closes the doors of Heorot. After the celebrating ends, Grendel does not come back.

It is not until Beowulf shows up at Heorot, after hearing of Hrothgar's "problem," that Grendel becomes a threat again. Beowulf orders the mead hall reopened. Hrothgar obliges and Grendel is killed that night.

Essentially, Hrothgar and Grendel are mortal enemies given Hrothgar worships God and Grendel hates God.

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What's the relationship between Hrothgar and his retainers or vassals in Beowulf?

Hrothgar is the King.  His people are "retained" through loyalty and love.  In Anglo-Saxon times, loyalty and family ties meant everything.  Hence, Grendel is such a monster mainly because he is descended of Cain, who murdered his own brother.  Crimes against family, blood, and loyalty oaths were considered unforgiveable.

So, anyone fighting to protect Hrothgar would have received the pledge that the King would take care of him as Hrothgar expected the warrior to protect the King.  As payment for a warrior's loyalty, Hrothgar often gave rings or other trinkets of wealth.  This is how the kings of the time period came to be known as "the ring-givers".   The bond can only be honorably broken through death.

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