Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA is the material that is located in the cell's nucleus that makes up the chromosomes and genes. Its molecule is in the shape of a double helix. The arrangement of nitrogenous bases in DNA determines an organism's traits. Every three bases is a triplet and codes for a particular amino acid. Amino acids joined together form a polypeptide and polypeptides make up proteins. Each gene, a distinct segment of DNA codes for a different protein. Proteins are important molecules as they are structural parts of an organism, can be enzymes or hormones. If a gene has a mutation, the protein may have limited or no function. This can cause a disease or death in an organism.
Genes are the segments of DNA. DNA is the whole genome and it contains coding sequences as well as non-coding sequences and the coding sequences are the genes. A gene codes for a protein. A full single gene can be present at one place on DNA, or fragments or parts of a single gene may be present at different locations on DNA with non-coding region in between.