This is a good question. During the Medieval ages, there was a strong emphasis on tradition and orthodoxy. The educational system was based on these values as well. This was called scholasticism. The educational focus of scholasticism was to train experts in certain fields such as theology and law through a standard and prescribed course of education, usually through canonical texts.
When the Renaissance burgeoned, Medieval values were called into question. Renaissance scholars desired to bypass the Medieval world and its narrow focus go back to the classical world, namely, the Greeks and Romans. With this new desire came a new theory education as well. Rather than sticking with the cannonical texts of the Medieval world, Renaissance humanism sought to broadened education. This method of education was called: studia humanitatis. This method of education focused on: grammar, rhetoric, history, poetry and moral philosophy.
The aim of humanism was to create individuals that were well rounded in their learning with the aim of creating better citizens.