What are the political and socio economic diffrences between north & south of america in 1850's?
alexis de toqueville has written in his book " yet all wisitors quickly found that two americas really existed"
Tocqueville is pointing out the regional differences in "America" play a large role in defining it. To this day, we understand that the nation of "America" encompasses many different narratives so that there is not "one" vision, but rather multiple and divergent ones. In terms of where America was in 1850, the North was primarily defined by industrialized notions of the economic good. Factories and commerce defined the region, along with urbanization brought on by such realities. At the same time, the South was more agrarian, a land where "cotton was king," and the harvesting of large plantation lands along with the crops grown helped to play a very large role in its definition.
The first answer points out some economic differences, so I will talk about political and social differences.
The North was a more egalitarian society. The South was based on the idea that the big slaveholders were something of an aristocracy. In the South rich men saw themselves as gentlemen and were concerned about their honor (they fought duels, etc).
Politically, the South believed in confederacy and states' rights. They worried, more than the North, about having their rights abused by a strong national government. You can see this in such things as the nullification controversy.