Well, the answer to that question is a matter of opinion. If you have watched the debate over health care reform these past 12 months, you'll notice how many different opinions on that question there are.
For most of those you've listed - education, health care, and housing - one could argue the role of the government is to provide equality of access. That is, to protect against discrimination and exclusion, and to provide incentives and subsidies so that more people, if not all people, can have access to those things.
For job security, you'll notice we have a safety net of unemployment insurance, as well as laws on the books that prevent wrongful termination or discrimination in hiring. Some would say these laws and roles level the playing field in the job market for all individuals.
Public safety is almost exclusively the role of the government - they provide for law enforcement and jails, and except in rare cases, citizens do not have the right to take the law into their own hands.