What is the process of water turning into a solid called?  

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Water is a liquid and its solid form is known as ice. When the water converts from the liquid phase (that is, water) to the solid phase (that is, ice), the process is known as freezing. 

Water freezes at 0 degrees Celsius at standard atmospheric pressure, while it is present as liquid water between a temperature of 0 degrees Celsius and 100 degrees Celsius. Heat is lost to the surroundings as the water freezes. The ethalapy of fusion of water or heat of fusion of water is 6 kJ/mol. That is, for freezing 1 mole of water at 0 degrees Celsius, 6 kJ of heat is lost to the surroundings or is given out. Thus, freezing is an exothermic process.

Note that freezing refers to the phase change from liquid to solid and does not involve any change in the temperature of water.

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