It can be very difficult for people who migrate to a new country for many reasons. Let's consider employment for a moment. For example, a person may have been some kind of medical specialist in their home country and then moved here to the United States. Certification requirements may be different here that in their home country. Therefore, they cannot get employment in their field of expertise. They may be forced to take low paying jobs. In addition, immigration can also lead to overcrowding which can become a burden.
The language barrier also poses many difficulties. It can be incredibly difficult for person to move to a country and not know the native language.
On the positive side, immigration increases cultural exchange and ideas. It gives everyone the opportunity to interact and exchange knowledge and experiences.
I wonder if you are talking more about immigrants and less about what we in the United States call "migrant workers."
To me, the major negative about immigration is the psychological impact that it has on the immigrant. When a person comes to a new country (I am basing much of this on my father's experience) he has to decide how much he is going to become a member of the new society and how much he is going to remain a member of his old society. This can be emotionally difficult.
My father, for example, became American both in passport and in culture. He married an American and, I suspect, that hastened the change. But I know that this was not easy for him. He regrets (as I do) that he did not teach us his native language. He feels bad when he cannot remember words in his language and when his brothers from back home speak English to him. He gave something up to become American. This choice is "forced" upon anyone who immigrates to a new country.
I work in an area with a large amount of migrant workers. Some of the benefits that I have witnessed is the availability of employment for these people. There are many jobs in factories and agriculture that hire migrant workers. A better education for their children is another factor. Many of the migrant workers do not speak English. Their children going to American schools have the opportunity to learn the language. Moving to this area is a plus for the migrant workers because many of them have family here. These provides them with a strong support network.
The down side of being a migrant in my town is that they typically do not speak the language. This allows them to be easily taken advantage of. There are people who seek out non-English speaking individuals so they can rob them of something. Another disadvantage of being a migrant is that if they have a college degree from another country the US may not acknowledge it. This impacts their occupation outlook.
Some of the most obvious positives are the reasons why people migrate in the first place, better opportunity to make money or have a better job, whether perceived or real, and the chance of a better life or perhaps to send money home to family and relatives in the native country. Some of the other positives can be the experience available in a new place, the chance to start over without any sort of reputation, etc., or the chance to learn another language or gain another skill that may be valuable in the future.
The negatives can follow many of the positives, the jobs might not be as plentiful or as much better as the ones available elsewhere. Many people try to take advantage of migrant workers, particularly those without legal status, to extort them for cheap labor, etc. The adjustment to a new community or the complete loss of the community with which one was familiar can also be an issue.
Problems and experience of migrants when they come to a new country will depend very much on the characteristics of the migrating people, the destination country and the circumstance under which they migrate. For example a person from Western Europe migrating to USA will find the cultural differences between the countries of origin and migration less severe than a migrant from, say, India. Also, a person takes up work in a senor position in a multinational firm and lives in a big city may face considerably less problems of adjustment as compared to one who works in small local company located in a small town. However in general we can identify the following types of problems and experienced of migrants in a country.
- The experience of discovering the culture of the country of migration. The cultural difference also create the problem of learning the new culture and adjusting within that culture.
- The problem of being separated from ones near and dear ones and the problem of developing new relationships.
- Possible opposition and discrimination by the local people.
- In ability to find items of daily use in the market one is used to. For example, the kid of food and food ingredients commonly available duffers from country to country, and a person accustomed to the food of one country may not relish the kind of food available other country.
- Picking up the language of the new country may also pose considerable challenge for immigrants. Even when the immigrant knows the basic language of the country. variations in pronunciation some usages may not always be easy to learn.