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According to Harold Koontz, an American organizational theorist and professor of business management:
Management is an art of getting things done through and with the people in formally organized groups. It is an art of creating an environment in which people can perform and individuals can co-operate towards attainment of group goals. [Management Study Guide]
- Management as Art
With management as art, there is an effective use of personal talents which will produce creativity that profits a business. The manager who has personal skills that translate into better motivation of employees is successful, and he/she is able to inspire and reward inspiration that produces profitable results. In other words, the manager allows for personal input that produces effective goals. The artistic manager creates a very positive morale in the work place as imaginative ideas that produce results are encouraged as well as rewarded. For, then, employees are motivated to work harder and use their imaginations, intelligences, and skills.
- Management as Science
The most effective system of management involves one boss and an established chain of command within a positive and healthy environment. Providing employees with absolutes also inspires confidence. With more than one person at a level of top command and responsibility, there is often confusion, lack of trust, and discord.
Experiments and new ideas must be allowed and practical experience appreciated. Providing workers incentives when they offer workable solutions to problems is also effective. Fairness to all employees keeps morale on a positive level, for when people are not treated fairly and equally, productivity is reduced and morale is hurt. Clearly, there needs to be fair balance of authority and responsibility in order for an organization to operate effectively.
Koontz, Harold. (1988). Management Study Guide. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, Inc.
Management is an art as well as a science. For example motivating employees to work in the interest of the the company or developing effective spirit in a group of people working together depends very mush on the personal conduct and inter-personal behaviour of the manager. The ability to perform these tasks well is very much dependent on the skills of the manager which can be developed only by practice. IN preforming these tasks a manager has no clear cut decision rules available to help him decide the exact action to be taken in a particular situation. The manager has to rely to a great extent on personal judgement on deciding the correct course of action. Task like these are examples of management as a science.
There are other situation where a manager is assisted in his or her action by very clear cut analytical and decision making tools. For example a maintenance manager may use statistical analysis to take decision on replacement of certain machine components, or a project manager may use PERT/CPM techniques to schedule project activities and allocate resources to different activities.
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