Management Is An Art Or Science Examples

What are practical examples of management as a science and an art?

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Management can be viewed as a science or as an art. As a science, it involves well-tested principles of management. There are two ideas that should be considered for management as a science. One is the availability of study materials. These study materials may help a manager acquire knowledge and...

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Management can be viewed as a science or as an art. As a science, it involves well-tested principles of management. There are two ideas that should be considered for management as a science. One is the availability of study materials. These study materials may help a manager acquire knowledge and skills that will help that person manage a business. Managers should test all principles under various conditions and should be as objective as possible when doing this.

Management as an art involves three ideas. One is the availability of study material. This knowledge should help a person develop managerial skills. The second concept is personalizing the principles of management to fit an individual’s style. The more a manager can personalize the principles of management, the more likely that person will succeed. Finally, managers must have repeated practice to improve their skills and productivity.

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According to Harold Koontz, an American organizational theorist and professor of business management:

Management is an art of getting things done through and with the people in formally organized groups. It is an art of creating an environment in which people can perform and individuals can co-operate towards attainment of group goals. [Management Study Guide]

  • Management as Art

With management as art, there is an effective use of personal talents which will produce creativity that profits a business. The manager who has personal skills that translate into better motivation of employees is successful, and he/she is able to inspire and reward inspiration that produces profitable results. In other words, the manager allows for personal input that produces effective goals. The artistic manager creates a very positive morale in the work place as imaginative ideas that produce results are encouraged as well as rewarded. For, then, employees are motivated to work harder and use their imaginations, intelligences, and skills. 

  • Management as Science

The most effective system of management involves one boss and an established chain of command within a positive and healthy environment. Providing employees with absolutes also inspires confidence. With more than one person at a level of top command and responsibility, there is often confusion, lack of trust, and discord.

Experiments and new ideas must be allowed and practical experience appreciated. Providing workers incentives when they offer workable solutions to problems is also effective. Fairness to all employees keeps morale on a positive level, for when people are not treated fairly and equally, productivity is reduced and morale is hurt. Clearly, there needs to be fair balance of authority and responsibility in order for an organization to operate effectively.

Additional Source:

Koontz, Harold. (1988). Management Study Guide. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, Inc. 

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