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Those delegated to attend the Constitutional Convention had the supreme task of dividing power with in federal government. Power was not to be isolated; one man or one group was not to have more power than another. The purpose of their careful delegation of powers between three government branches was done to insure that the United States would not become another form of dictatorship.
The Executive Branch is headed by the President. It's his job to carry out federal laws, recommend new laws, and to direct out national defenses and oversee foreign policy. The President's power includes directing the government, commanding the Armed Forces, dealing with foreign powers, acting as the chief law enforcement officer, and vetoing laws.
The Legislative Branch is headed by Congress; Congress consists of the House of Representaives and the Senate. These two legislative bodies are responsible for making the laws, and their powers include passing laws, creating spending bills (House of Representatives), impeaching officials (the Senate) and approval of treaties (the Senate).
The Judicial Branch is headed by the United States Supreme Court. The Supreme Court's powers include, interpreting the Constitution, law review, and trying cases that invole states' rights.
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