What were the positive and negative effects of the Columbian exchange?
The primary positive effect of the Columbian exchange was increased food supply and nutrients to the populations of both areas. Europe probably benefited more than the Americas with the introduction of potatoes and maize (corn) to that continent. The end result was a decided improvement in the diet of most Europeans as well as a decline in the overall cost of food. Europeans tended to live longer after the exchange, fewer children died in infancy, and there was a resultant explosion in the population. This exponential population growth was a substantial factor in the advent of the Industrial Revolution.
Just as Europe benefited from the exchange, so the Americas suffered. Although many useful crops such as wheat, barley and rye and livestock such as cattle and swine were introduced, so also were infectious diseases such as measles and smallpox to which the native population had no immunity. Fully 90 per cent of the pre-Columbian population of the Americas had disappeared within 100 years of Columbus' landing. Conversely, it is widely believed by historians that Spanish conquistadores returning to Europe were infected with the Syphillis baccilus in the Americas. Just as the people of the Americas had no immunity to European diseases; so Europeans had no immunity to this sexually transmitted disease. A virtual epidemic resulted which caused thousands of deaths. The exchange was therefore beneficial and harmful to both; yet much more disastrous to the Americas than to Europe.
A decidedly mixed result was the introduction of black slavery into the Americas. Slavery itself was an unmitigated holocaust, resulting in the death and cruel mistreatment of untold numbers of human beings. However, it was through this sad chapter that black culture was introduced to the Americas which has enriched its cultural flavor over time.
The Columbian Exchange had both negative and positive effects. Some of the positive effects include the exchange of technology. The introduction of the plow transformed farming because it increased cultivation and food production to the benefit of both Native Americans and the Europeans. Introduction of weapons and other tools made from steel facilitated the Native Americans’ hunting activities. The Native Americans adopted the architectural style of the Europeans, and it enabled them to build stronger, more durable structures.
Exchange of plants was also one of the positive effects of the Columbian exchange. The Europeans introduced sugarcane to the new world, and the sweetener enhanced taste for the Native Americans. Similarly, the introduction of maize and potatoes to the Old World was much welcomed. Maize, unlike wheat, could grow in vast regions and had a long shelf life when dried. Potatoes, naturally, became part of the European diet.
The introduction of certain animals from the Old World such as horses, oxen, and asses transformed labor by powering cultivation in combination with the plow. These animals also transformed transportation.
The most notable negative effect of the Columbian Exchange was the transfer of diseases. Diseases were transferred from the Old to the New World and vice versa. Some of the New World diseases transferred to the Old World included syphilis, polio, and hepatitis. On the other hand, Old World diseases transferred to the New World included smallpox, malaria, influenza, yellow fever, and measles. Of those, smallpox was the most devastating because it caused the highest number of deaths.