What are polysaccharides and how they are presenting?
Polysaccharides are carbohydrates. They are made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms. They are in a 2:1:1 ratio between hydrogen, carbon and oxygen atoms. They are used for quick energy and structural support. Some examples of carbohydrates are glucose and fructose. Foods that are carbohydrates are potatoes, pasta, and bread.
Polysaccharides are widespread both in flora, and in fauna , having a high biological importance. Starch and cellulose are mentioned as plant type polysaccharides and glycogen is mentioned as animal type.Polysaccharides are obtained by removing the 'n' water molecules between several molecules of monosaccharides.
Main polysaccharides:Cellulose, Starch, Glycogen
- is a mixture of two polysaccharides: amylose and amylopectin component
- Macromolecular structure n C6 H12 O6 → [C6 H10 O5] n
- industrial, is made from potato starch or wheat flour
- represents a fine powder, white, more or less bright
- in industry, acid hydrolysis of starch is used in processing glucose and enzymatic hydrolysis, to obtain ethanol
Cellulose - [C6 H10 O5] n
- Is in the form of filiform macromolecules
- 5 n 6 n CO2 + H20 → [C6 H10 O5] n + 6 n O2
- In pure state, cellulose is made from cotton fibers
- Cellulose is a white substance,fibrous macromolecular structure , tasteless and odorless, insoluble in water, diluted mineral acids and in organic solvents
- Study of esterification led to the conclusion that in each group C6 H10 O5 is containing three hydroxyl groups, on this basis, molecular formula of cellulose can be written as:
[C6 H10 O2 (OH3)] n
Glycogen - [C6 H10 O5]
is called,''the animal starch and is found in all body cells, is a white powder, soluble in water but insoluble in alcohol by acid hydrolysis, glycogen is split into glucose.