What is the attitude of Polyphemus towards the Gods in The Odyssey?  

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Like the previous answer states, Polyphemus definitely shows some hostility towards the Gods when he says that the Cyclops do not honor or respect Zeus. However, his relationship to the Gods as a whole is more complicated than that. Polyphemus reveals near the end of the chapter that he is the son of Poseidon, and he calls on the sea god to punish Odysseus as the hero attempts to escape:

But at that he bellowed out to lord Poseidon,
thrusting his arms to the starry skies, and prayed, "Hear me—
Poseidon, god of the sea-blue mane who rocks the earth!
If I really am your son and you claim to be my father—
come, grant that Odysseus [...]
never reaches home. Or if he's fated to see
his people once again and reach his well-built house
and his own native country, let him come home late
and come home a broken man—all shipmates lost,
alone in a stranger's ship—
and let him find a world of pain at home!"

Poseidon hears this prayer, and if you know the rest of the story, you know that this request is exactly what happens to Odysseus. He loses his entire crew only to arrive home after years and years, ultimately finding a host of suitors trying to steal his wife. Though Polyphemus and the Cyclops race obviously have no great love for Zeus and the other gods, Polyphemus at least relies on the relationship between him and his father, Poseidon. His attitude towards the Gods is complex. He neither fully worships nor hates them, and he is not afraid to call on his father when he is in need.

My quotation comes from Book 9 of the English edition translated by Robert Fagles (Penguin Books 1997).

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Clearly Polyphemus does not have a particularly good attitude towards the gods, and especially Zeus. Note how Polyphemus responds to what Odysseus tells him about who they are and where they are going:

The Cyclopes care nothing about Zeus,
who bears the aegis, or the blessed gods.
We are much more powerful than them.
I wouldn’t spare you or your comrades
to escape the wrath of Zeus, not unless
my own heart prompted me to do it.

The arrogance and blasphemy of Polyphemus in what he says is patently obvious. To believe that you are "much more powerful" the gods is to clearly place yourself above them and to ignore their power and control over your life. In this speech, Polyphemus effectively conveys his disregard and disrespect towards the gods. Of course, as always in Greek literature, such hubris is punished, and the way in which Odysseus tricks Polyphemus and manages to escape clearly shows the punishment for saying and believing such things.

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