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In one way, the obvious answer would be all of them. Furthermore, political, cultural, social and economic issues influence many aspects of plays as well. In the case of Macbeth, this works on two different levels, first that of influences on the actual events in Scotland, and second influences on Shakespeare which affected the writing of the play. A third level is the Renaissance English perception of Scotland as wild and savage.
Different types of literary scholarship analyze different aspects of social conditions when analyzing a play. Marxist scholars might emphasize the changing economic conditions such as the rise of the bourgeois class and the enclosure acts. New historicists have been particularly interested in the centralization of power in the Tudor monarchy and its literary representations, along with the rise of self-fashioning in response to rapid social change and class mobility. Feminist scholars would look at Lady Macbeth in terms of female power. Psychological critics might look at the effects of the loss of a mother on an infant.
Political, social, cultural, and economical influences are around us everyday, and without a doubt shape human condition. Much of these influences, also involve multiple perspectives at once. Let me explain.
Take for example, the idea of attending College and receiving a degree. Over the last 20 years, the belief of importance in this has only increased. Why? Well to answer this, we can look at each political, social, cultural and ecomical perspective. Politically, we see how many men/women in power have a solid foundation of education. I am not sure if there ever has been a congressman, governor, or even mayor who has not had any experience in College. This power at the top and their experiences, certainly provide influence to current students and parents.
Next, look at the social influence. Take two graduated high school seniors, one of them is going to College, while the other will begin working at a dead end job. The College-bound student is probably thinking, and even may say "what is wrong with you? Why aren't you attending school to get a degree?" These outside social forces provide influence to us everyday.
Culturally, we can look at how society is behaving today. It is almost a necessity these days to go and pursue further education after high school. Although I do not know what the percent of students who graduate high school go and attend college is, I do know the number has increased dramatically over the last 20 years. It's just a part of our culture now.
Finally, looking at an economic perspective, it's certainly possible to say that without a college education, you will struggle to find the job that many companies are looking to fill. Without even a Bachelor's degree, many people will be stuck applying and pursuing jobs that do not require college education. The economic influence of finding employment and making a good salary is certainly a contributor to the reasons for attending college.
I hope my example has helped. Just note that political, social, cultural, and economical influences surround us in society everyday.
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