What were the political objectives and who were the principal agents of change in the “Border Campaigns” of the Civil Rights Movements in: 1) Oakland, California; 2) the Ocean Hill-Brownsville District of New York City; 3) Cleveland, Ohio; 4) Gary, Indiana; 5) Chicago, Illinois; and 6) Detroit, Michigan?

Expert Answers

An illustration of the letter 'A' in a speech bubbles

There were different offshoots of the Civil Rights movement as it spread from the South. In Oakland, California, there were protests against segregated housing in the Bay Area. There were also protests against discrimination in jobs; for example, in 1963, there were organized protests organized by CORE and the Ad Hoc Committee to End Discrimination at locations of Mel's Drive-In restaurants in Oakland, Berkeley, and San Francisco (see the link from Google Arts and Culture, below). There were also protests at the Bank of America against racial discrimination in hiring.

In the Ocean Hill/Brownsville neighborhood of Brooklyn, there was a 1968 teachers' strike that resulted when the community-controlled school board dismissed several teachers, most of whom were Jewish. The communities were mainly African American and wanted to appoint more African American teachers. The principal agents in this action were members of the local community school board.

In Cleveland, Ohio, there were riots in 1966 (referred to as the Hough Riots) and later in 1968, largely in reaction to African American residents' feeling that there were insufficient economic opportunities in the eastern section of the city where many lived. Race riots broke out in Gary, Indiana and in Chicago and Detroit in 1968 (Detroit also had riots in 1967) after Martin Luther King's assassination, largely in reaction to unequal housing conditions and high rates of unemployment in African American neighborhoods, among other concerns. You can do more research into the root causes and the agents of the riots in these cities.

Approved by eNotes Editorial Team