What political and economic factors helped lead to the end of Reconstruction in 1877?
The end of Reconstruction was in part brought about by the disputed presidential election between Samuel Tilden, a Democrat, and Rutherford B. Hayes, a Republican, in 1876. The Electoral College did not produce a clear winner, as the votes of several states were contentious. Therefore, through an unwritten deal, the Democrats agreed to Hayes's ascension to the presidency in return for his promise to withdraw federal troops from the South, a practice which was deeply unpopular in the Democrat-controlled south. Therefore, there were political reasons for the end of Reconstruction. In addition, many Northerners felt that after the Congress had passed the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments (outlawing slavery, granting slaves citizenship, and granting all men the right to vote, respectively), the federal government had done all they could to help African Americans.
In addition, the Panic of 1873, an economic downturn in the United States that persisted through the 1870s, caused Reconstruction to be less popular. The popular will turned against reconstructing the South and moved toward improving the economic health of the country. The will for the government to continue the program of Reconstruction no longer existed.