The most important strategy was their very tolerant policy toward non-Arab Muslims, as well as Christians and Jews. In particular, Abbasid rulers invited scholars of multiple faiths to come to their court and receive patronage, a practice which enabled them to, in the words of one historian, "export cultural, architectural, and intellectual models" throughout the empire. The Abbasids also encouraged the strenghtening of trade ties between all parts of the Empire, giving their subjects a stronger economic incentive to support their rule. Additionally, and perhaps most importantly, they were able to establish a sort of administrative rulership, one which was not based on military force, but on institutions, bureaucracy, and authority derived from the center of the empire. But it is just as important to remember that their rhetoric, which emphasized the equality of all Muslims, made them an attractive option to the Umayyad dynasty that preceded them.